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教学大纲

Chapter 1:Introduction to the cell
Chapter 2:Techniques in Cell Biology
Chapter 3:Biomembranes: Their Structure, Chemistry and Functions
Chapter 4:Extracellular matrix,Cell junction and cell adhension
Chapter 5:The Movement of Substances Across Cell Membranes
Chapter 6:Cell Signaling
Chapter 7: Endomembrane system, Protein Sorting and membrane trafficking
Chapter 8: Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Chapter 9: Nucleus and Chromosomes
Chapter 10:Cytoskeleton System
Chapter 11:Cell proliferation and its regulation
Chapter 12:Cell differentiation and Cancer cells
Chapter 13:Cell senescence and apoptosis


Syllabus
ChapterLearning Content and Objectives

Ⅰ. Introduction
Difficult Point:
Review of Cell Biology and Its Researching Methods
1.Contents and actuality of researches on cell biology
Know that cell biology is a fundamental subject in modern life
science
Know the important researching contents on cell biology
Know the overall trends and key domains on cell biology research
2.A brief history of Cytology and Cell biology
Know the discovery of cell
Know the establishment of cytology and its significance
Know the classical period of cytology
Know the embranchment and development of experimental cytology and
cytology
Know the subjects establishment and development of cell biology
Know the main academic organizations, issues and textbooks

Ⅱ. Summary of basic knowledge on cell
1.Basic concepts of cellMaster and apprehend that cell is the basic unit of life
Apprehend some new thoughts on the concepts of cell
Know the commonness of cell
2.Noncellular Living Organism--Virus and Its Relations With Cell
Know the basic knowledge of virus
Know that virus proliferate (replicate) in cell
Apprehend the relation between virus and cell in origin and
evolution
3.Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell
Know the minimal and simplest cell—mycoplast
Know and master two representation of prokaryotic cell --bacteria
and cyanobacteria
Apprehend and master the comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells
Know archaeobacteria
4.Summary of Basic Knowledge on Eukaryotic Cell
Apprehend and master basic structural system of eukaryotic cell
Apprehend the size of cell and its analysis
Apprehend the relation between the cell structure and function
Comparison between plant cell and animal cell

Ⅲ. Methodology of Cell Biology
1.Methods on Cell Structure Observation
Apprehend and master of light microscopy
Apprehend and master of electron microscope
Know scanning tunneling microscope
2.Analytical Methods of Cell Components
Apprehend using super-centrifugation to separate organelles,
macromolecules and their complexes
Know the vision method of nucleic acid, proteins, enzymes, sugar
and lipids in cell
Apprehend and master localization and qualitative analysis using
special protein antigen
Know the localization and qualitative analysis of special
intracellular nucleic acids
Apprehend and master research on intracellular dynamic synthesis of
macromolecules using radioautography
Know quantitative analysis of cell chemistry
3.Cell Culture, Cell Engineering and Micromanipulation
Master types and methods of cell incubation
Master main achievements of cell engineering

Ⅳ. Cell Membrane and Cell Surface
Difficult Point:
Biomembrane System
1.Cell Membrane and Specialized Structures on Cell
Surface
Master and apprehend membrane structure
Know various kinds of membrane lipids
Apprehend species of membrane proteins and their transmembrane modes
Apprehend and master fluidity of membrane
Apprehend and master asymmetry of Membrane
Know functions of membrane
Know skeleton and specialized structures on cell surface
2.Cell Junction
Apprehend and master functions and effects of occluding junctions
Apprehend and master functions and effects of anchoring junctions
Apprehend and master functions and effects of communicating
junctions
Know adhesive factors on cell surface
3.Cell Coat and Extracellular Matrix
Apprehend dynamic synthesis and functions of collagen
Know functions of glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan
Know functions of laminin and fibronectin
Know functions of elastin
uKnow components and functions of plant cell wall

Ⅴ.Transmembrane Transport and Signaling
1.Transport Across Cell Membrane
Master the features of passive transport
Master the types of active transport and its differences between
passive transport
Apprehend and master the concepts, process and features of
endocytosis and exocytosis
2.Cell Communication and Signaling
Know cell communication and cell recognition
Apprehend and master intracellular receptor-mediated signaling
Apprehend and master cell-surface receptor-mediated transmembrane
signaling
Know cell-surface linked protein-mediated signaling
Apprehend basic features of signaling and network integrated
information of protein kinase

Ⅵ. Cytosol and Endomembrane System
1.Cytoplasmic Matrix (Cytosol)
Apprehend the meaning of cytoplasmic matrix
Master functions of cytoplasmic matrix
Know concepts of cytoplasmic matrix and cytosol
2.Endoplasmic Reticulum
Know the two basic types of endoplasmic reticulum
Apprehend functions of endoplasmic reticulum
Know endoplasmic reticulum and regulation of gene expression
3.Golgi Complex
Master structure of Golgi apparatus and its polarity
Master the molecular mechanism of vesicular transport
Apprehend and master functions of Golgi apparatus and its relation
with functions of endoplasmic reticulum
Apprehend and master Golgi apparatus and intracellular vesicular
transport
Apprehend relations between structure and functions of endomembrane
system
4.Lysosome and Peroxisome
Know structure of lysosome
Apprehend and master functions of lysosome
Apprehend and master of genesis of lysosome
Apprehend lysosome and diseases
Know differences between lysosome and peroxisome and functions of
the latter
5.Intracellular Protein Sorting and Assembly of Cell Structure
Apprehend and master signal hypothesis and protein sorting signals
Apprehend and master basic pathways and types of protein sorting
Apprehend and master types and features of vesicular transport
Know assembly of cell structure system

Ⅶ. Energy Conversion: Mitochondria and Chloroplast
1.Mitochondrion and oxidative phosphorylation
Master structure of mitochondrion
Know chemical composition and localization of enzymes in
mitochondrion
Apprehend and master functions of mitochondrion
Know mitochondrion and diseases
2.Chloroplast and Photosynthesis (Self-learing)
Know the modalities, sizes and number of chloroplast
Know structureand chemical composition of chloroplast
Apprehend and master main function of chloroplast—photosynthesis
3.Mitochondrion and chloroplast are semiautonomous organelles
Know mitochondrion and chloroplast DNA
Apprehend and master protein synthesis of mitochondrion and
chloroplast
Apprehend and master protein transport and assembly of
mitochondrion and chloroplast
4.Proliferation and Origin of Mitochondrion and
Chloroplast
Know proliferation of mitochondrion and chloroplast
Know orientation of mitochondrion and chloroplast

Ⅷ.Nucleus and Chromosome
Difficult Point:
Genetic Information Carrier and Expression System
1.Nuclear Envelope
and Nuclear Pore Complex
Master structure of nuclear envelope
Apprehend and master functions of nuclear pore complex
2.Chromatin
Master concept and chemical composition of chromosome
Master the basic structure unit of chromosome—nucleosome
Apprehend structural model of chromosome package
Master of euchromatin and heterochromatin
3.Chromosome
Know modal structure of metaphase chromosome
Apprehend and master 3 functional elements of chromosome DNA
Know karyotype and banding
Apprehend cause and function of giant chromosome
4.Nucleolus
Master ultrastructure of nucleolus
Apprehend and master functions of nucleolus
Know nucleolar cycle
5.Structure of Chromatin and Gene Expression
Know the main features of active chromatin
Know structure of chromatin and gene expression
6.Nuclear Matrix and Nuclear Bodies
Know nuclear matrix
Know nuclear bodies

Ⅸ. Ribosome (Self-learning)
1.Types and Structure of Ribosome
Master basic types and composition of ribosome
Master structure of ribosome
Master functions ribosomal proteins and rRNA
2.Polyribosome and Protein Synthesis
Know polyribosome
Master protein synthesis
Master position of RNA in life origin

Ⅹ. Cytoskeleton
Difficult Point:
Cytoskeleton
1.Cytoplasmic Skeletons
Apprehend and master dynamic assembly of microfilament and types
and functions of microgilament-associated protein
Apprehend and master relation between microfilament function and
cell movement
Apprehend and master molecular mechanism of muscle contraction
Apprehend and master dynamic assembly of microtubule,
microtubule-associated protein and motor protein
Master functions of microtubule and their relations with cell, cell
movement and localization
Master intermediate filament and know its functions
2.Nucleoskeleton (Self-learning)
Know concepts of nuclear matrix
Know chromosome scaffold
Master main functions of nuclear lamina

Ⅺ. Cell Proliferation and Its Regulation
Difficult Point:
Cell Proliferation, Differentiation and Cell Senescence and
Apoptosis
1.Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Master cell cycle concepts and cycling phrase events
Master principle of cell cycle synchronization method
Master and apprehend main events and features in every phrases of
mitosis
Apprehend and master the process and significance of meiosis
2.Cell Cycle Control
Master discovery and functions of MPF
Apprehend discovery of P 34cdc2 kinase and its relation with MPF
Master functions of cyclic protein
Master CDK kinase and CDK inhibitors
Master and apprehend how cell cycle function properly and its
regulation
Know other inner and outer factors in cell cycle regulation

Ⅻ. Cell Differentiation and Gene Expression Regulation
1.Cell Differentiation
Master basic concepts of cell differentiation, dedifferentiation
and re-differentiation
Know factors influencing cell differentiation
Apprehend and master totipotency and stem cell
Know cell differentiation and embryo development
2.Cancer Cell
Master basic features of cancer cell
Master and apprehend relations between cancer and oncogene and
tumor-suppressor gene
Apprehend cancer results from cumulation of gene mutation
Know therapy approaches of cancer
3.Regulation of Eukaryote Gene Expression (Self-learning)
Know regulation of transcription
Know regulation of processing
Know regulation of translation

ⅩⅢ. Cell Senescence and Apoptosis
1.Cell Senescence
Know earlier research on cell senescence
Apprehend Hayflick limit
Know cell senescence in vivo
Know structure changes of senile cells
Master and apprehend molecular mechanism of cell senescence:
Oxidation/Telomere
2.Cell Apoptosis
uApprehend and master concepts and biological significance of cell
apoptosis
Master morphology and biochemical features of cell apoptosis
Apprehend the master molecular mechanisms and main pathways of
apoptosis
Know plant cell apoptosis
Apprehend relations between cell apoptosis and senescence

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